Continuous On-line Leaching to Evaluate the Effect of Toasting on Bioaccessibility and Pb Source Apportionment of Alternative Breads

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    With the increasing popularity of alternative breads, investigating their health benefits and risks is vitally important. The bioaccessibility of potentially toxic elements (PETs) in these breads could indicate a potential risk to consumers. The continuous online leaching method (COLM) involves the sequential leaching of a mini-column of food by artificial saliva, gastric juice, and intestinal fluid with real time monitoring of elements being released. Because the dissolution equilibrium is shifted to the right from continuous exposure to fresh reagent, it assesses bioaccessibility in three gastrointestinal matrices in less than 30 min and includes valuable kinetic extraction information. In this study, a gluten-free (GF) and a rye bread were analyzed for As, Cd, and Pb before and after toasting. Toasting lowered all PTE concentrations by a factor of 1.5 (As in rye bread) to 2.5 (Cd in rye bread). Most of the PTEs present were bioaccessible whether the bread was toasted or not. In the case of As, a significant portion is in the form of As(III) and As(V). COLM analysis allowed for Pb sourcing, revealing two potential sources of Pb being released separately in gastric juice from rye bread based on their significantly different 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb isotope ratios. Comparison with Pb ratios reported in previous literature revealed that some of the gastric-mobile Pb in rye bread came from the Pb historically added to gasoline in North America. This source completely vanished upon toasting rye bread.

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  • Online: September 28,2021
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