2021, 42(5):227-230. DOI: 10.46770/AS.2021.108
2021, 42(5):231-237. DOI: 10.46770/AS.2021.805
Abstract:The COVID-19 pandemic has led to severe threat globally. As a result, scientists are increasing their efforts in developing testing methods, antiviral drugs, and vaccines, to diagnose, treat, and defend against COVID-19 respectively. Although RT-PCR and antigen tests are used for the screening of COVID-19, there are many disadvantages including high cost, long processing time, and false-negative results. With the exception of supportive care, no specific treatment for COVID-19 has been established. Metallomics focuses on the systematic study of the interactions and functional connections of metallic/metalloid ions and their species with genes, proteins, metabolites, and other biomolecules within organisms and ecosystems. It has been applied in the screening of various cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and viral infections and metallodrug development with the advantages of high throughput, low risk of cross-infection, low cost, and ready availability. Therefore, we proposed the use of metallomics for the screening and metallodrug development of COVID-19. An operational work scheme is also presented.
2021, 42(5):238-246. DOI: 10.46770/AS.2021.101
Abstract:The emerging field of matermetallomics refers to all research activities aimed at the clarification of the role and function of metallic elements in materials. This paper discusses the concept of matermetallomics and the related analytical techniques used for probing the interactions between structure-activity relationships. The main object of matermetallomics research is metallic elements in materials, and includes the significance and contributions to materials science. This paper also introduces the analytical approaches used in matermetallomics, which includes the techniques of imaging, spectroscopic, X-ray-based, ion beam, MS-based and atomic spectrometry.
2021, 42(5):247-253. DOI: 10.46770/AS.2021.107
Abstract:In this paper, the concept of archaeometallomics is put forward to study the role of metal elements in cultural relics. An example is the influence of metal elements in the identification of their origin, dating, authenticity and the technology used for the production of ancient ceramics. This analysis also provides the social and cultural connotations of the development process of that time and shows that there is a close relationship between the rich glaze varieties and the metal elements in porcelain. The application of different analytical techniques in studying metallic elements in ancient ceramics is also briefly summarized. The construction of a metal element composition database and the related questions in the glaze color-forming mechanism of ancient relics should be considered an important research direction for future works.
2021, 42(5):254-261. DOI: 10.46770/AS.2021.105
Abstract:Uranium (U) is one of the most concerned radioactive metals on earth. Thus, to unravel the transportation and transformation of U in the food webs, and tracing its ecological and health risks are of utmost and timely importance. Radiometallomics, in conjunction with the research methods, mainly focus on establishing the ecological and biological metabolisms and behaviors of radiometals/metalloids. In particular, synchrotron radiation (SR) has many advanced properties, e.g., high brightness and collimation, and a wide energy spectrum, which make it a unique technique in the study of metal distribution and speciation analysis. To date, SR-based techniques are widely applied in the environmental sciences; however, a systematic summary of its application in radiometallomics is still lacking. This review assembled and compared the conventional and advanced techniques, especially SR-based radiometallomics used in studying U in environmental matrixes, with the aim that this information will help to develop further combined metallomics approaches in the U analysis and risk assessment of contaminated areas.
2021, 42(5):262-270. DOI: 10.46770/AS.2021.104
Abstract:The emerging field of metrometallomics refers to the qualitative and quantitative measurement of metallic analytes in the metrological sciences. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has the merits of multi-elemental quantification with very low detection limits. It has been applied for the quantification of peptides and proteins by measuring the concentration of certain elements, which is a very important applications area in metrometallomics. This review showcases the application of ICP-MS on the quantification of metalloproteins through the quantification of protein-bound metal/metalloid elements, intrinsic metal/metalloid elements, or labeled metal/metalloid elements. The results of study also suggest that metrometallomics can be a useful tool in the development of certified reference materials of metalloproteins.
2021, 42(5):271-277. DOI: 10.46770/AS.2021.708
Abstract:In this study, sources of Pb are investigated using the 206Pb/207Pb isotopic ratio measured by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry in the bio-accessible fractions from wheat, Miswak toothbrush (also used as chewing stick) and Miswak fruit. These samples were obtained for the in vitro batch and on-line leaching methods that mimic the human gastrointestinal tract by sequentially using artificial saliva, gastric juice and intestinal fluid for extraction. The two methods provided similar results according to a Student’s t-test at the 95% confidence level. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in 206Pb/207Pb were noted at the 95% confidence level in different artificial body fluids. Except for unpolluted Miswak toothbrush and Miswak fruit, which only contained geogenic Pb, the samples contained a mixture of geogenic and anthropogenic Pb, with bio-accessible Pb in saliva being mainly from a geogenic source, whereas bio-accessible Pb in the stomach and intestinal fluids was mainly from anthropogenic sources. Despite the fact that leaded petrol was phased out in Saudi Arabia in 2001, a Miswak toothbrush collected on the side of a busy road after exposure for only a few days and Safeer wheat were still being contaminated with Pb and had an isotopic composition matching that of Pb added to petrol. The 208Pb/206Pb isotopic ratio for gastric bio-accessible Pb also matched that reported in tetraethyllead. The 206Pb/207Pb isotopic ratios of intestinal bio-accessible Pb from Qassim wheat and Safeer wheat point to coal combustion as the source. Overall, these results highlight the need for continued Pb monitoring and the value of examining bio-accessible fractions periodically to identify Pb sources.
2021, 42(5):278-281. DOI: 10.46770/AS.2021.103
Abstract:Clinimetallomics is proposed as a branch of metallomics that focuses on the study of the metallome in clinical samples of urine, blood, and tissues. As the clinical diagnosis of arsenic poisoning is mainly based on the concentration of total arsenic in urine, the toxicity of arsenic varies greatly in different speciation. Analysis of arsenic speciation with excessive total arsenic in urine can provide a basis for precise treatment. It can also be used to understand the fate of arsenic in the body of patients with arsenic poisoning after treatment with sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate. In this study, a HPLC-ICP-MS method was established for the determination of arsenic species in urine samples from patients diagnosed with arsenism. Use the established method to detect urine samples, which can be directly assayed after simple sample dilution with 20 mmol/L EDTA-2Na. With the concentration of arsenic speciation in the range of 1.0~100.0 ng/mL, the linear correlation coefficient was higher than 0.99996. The recoveries were between 91.1 % and 111 %. The precision of the concentration was less than 5.00 % and the detection limit was between 1.42 ng/mL and 1.86 ng/mL. This method can be applied to arsenic speciation in the urine of healthy people, in patients treated for arsenic poisoning, and in patients diagnosed with arsenism.
2021, 42(5):282-293. DOI: 10.46770/AS.2021.703
Abstract:The Fe isotope ratios can be a useful tracer of geochemistry, biogeochemistry, and the environmental redox state. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of Fe isotopic analysis in Fe-dominated minerals by 193 nm excimer ns laser ablation combined with Nu Plasma 1700 high resolution MC-ICP-MS without matrix-match calibration. Several important instrument parameters were investigated, such as the effect of the addition of nitrogen gas and water vapor, the effects of analytical parameters such as ablation mode, laser fluence, pulse repetition rate, spot size on Fe isotopic mass bias during analysis were investigated as well. The results showed that the effects of ablation mode, spot size, laser pulse repetition rate, and line scan speed can be neglected, while laser fluence and matrix effects had significant influence on the Fe isotopic mass bias at dry plasma condition. These problems can be minimized using consistent lower fluence (1.5?3.5 J·cm-2), as well as the wet plasma conditions can significantly reduce the matrix effect in Fe isotopic analysis. Fortunately, with the water vapor and nitrogen gas addition after the ablation cell, an accurate and precise Fe isotope in pyrite, manganite, hematite, and chalcopyrite analysis by ns-LA-MC-ICP-MS can be achieved with non-matrix-matched calibration. The obtained accuracy and reproducibility of the in situ determinations of δ56FeIRMM-014 were both better than ± 0.10‰ (2 SD). This study indicated that there was a serious matrix effect in the Fe isotopic analysis of Fe-dominated minerals by ns- LA-MC-ICP-MS, and nitrogen gas mixed with water vapor-assisted ns- LA-MC-ICP-MS were an appealing option for the in situ Fe isotope analysis of Fe-dominated minerals with non-matrix-matched calibration.