The effects of several common interfering elements, low-molecular weight organic compounds (LMWOCs), and surfactants on the analytical performance of solution anode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (SAGD-OES) were extensively studied. The resistance to interfering elements (Na, K, Mg and Ca) of different analytes (Ag, Cd and Hg) varied wildly. At extremely low concentrations of 1 mg L-1, Ag and Cd signals were suppressed by 31-35% and 17-30%, respectively; however, even at up to 100 mg L-1 Na/K/Mg/Ca, the method exhibited satisfactory recovery rates of 91-96% for Hg measurement. These findings give references for the quantitative methods directed against different test elements. The LMW alcohols (methanol and ethanol) and carboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid) added to solution anode exhibited complex and diverse behaviors. Signal suppression was present for Ag, while characteristic emission was enhanced in the case of Hg. Surfactants such as Triton X series gave better results in spectral pattern and analyte response, with a sensitivity increase of 1.4-3.3 times and a notable descent in background levels. Furthermore, the experimental results suggested that the Triton X-100 still improved the detection limits (DLs) and signal-to-back ratios (SBRs) of elements in samples with a certain salinity of 500 mg L-1 Na. Despite the presence of Na-rich matrix, the DLs of Ag, Cd and Hg were quite low (1.0, 0.9 and 7 μg L-1, respectively), comparable to various microdischarge spectroscopy methods and ICP-OES.